Is responsible for the detection of odor molecules expressed olfactory receptor on the cell membrane of olfactory receptor neurons. Olfactory receptor activation is the initial player signaling cascade to produce nerve impulses that are transmitted to the brain eventually. These receptors are members of the class rhodopsin like family G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Olfactory receptor, forms a multigene family of genes of more than 900 genes of 1500 people and in mice.
In vertebrates, olfactory receptors are located in both the cilia of olfactory neurons and synapses. Insect olfactory receptor is located in the chemical sense organs and other antenna. Also sperm, to express the odor receptors is believed to be involved in chemotaxis in order to find the egg cell.
Instead, olfactory receptors show affinity for the number of odor molecules, the specific binding ligand, and vice versa one odor molecule can bind to a number of odorant receptors in different orientations. Fragrance is associated with odor receptor undergoes a conformational change, binds to it, to activate the olfactory type G protein from the interior of the olfactory receptor neurons. Protein G, a lyase activation (GS and / or golf) – Now is converted to ATP to the (cAMP) cyclic AMP – adenylate cyclase. CAMP opens a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel to be able to enter the neuron depolarization and the beginning of olfactory receptor action potential sodium ion and calcium convey information cells, the brain.
Thousands of olfactory receptor of the main sequence, are known in the genome over tens of organisms: they are seven-helix transmembrane protein, but there is a, one of Do not have a known structure. Zinc, copper, Suslick probably (perhaps metal protein the actual odds ratio will help there is a sequence that takes the logical sum of all that is metal ion binding site of the tripod, is highly conserved in about three-quarters of is a Lewis acid binding site of odor molecules Many have proposed that it is the manganese ion). In 1978, Cu earlier also is good metal-coordinating ligands such as thiol, the volatile substance of strong fragrance, Crabtree, for the receptor site of the metal in the “nose that are candidates “most likely has been suggested. Block Zhuang, and Matsunami confirmed and mice have shown that copper is essential for the detection of other sulfur-containing compounds and certain thiol in 2012, the Raleigh / support slick motion in the case of MOR244-3 . Therefore, the use of chemicals that bind to the copper nose of the mouse, for example, not be available receptor copper, the authors show that it was not possible mouse to detect thiols. However, it was found that it was devoid of metal ion binding sites specific proposed MOR244-3 shows a different pattern in the areas of EC2 Instead, the authors also Suslick thereof.
However, it is assumed in the interpretation of the controversy, it also, it is not a vibrational energy level to another of the molecule via a mechanism quantum coherence really, olfactory receptor feel structural motif could be very recent. (This change is significant vibrational energy levels of the molecule) which is evidence that the ability to distinguish the odor molecules of two different is shown hydrogen isotope only flies. It is possible not only to form the odor, fly nedeuterirani distinguish between deuterium, they can be combined to own the “deuteratedness” the novel other molecules. In addition, they learned the behavior of molecules in order to avoid generalizations deuterated not share important stretching vibration but deuterium molecule, physics deuterium difference (bottom), the difficulty of accounting fact have. Incidentally, it should be noted that the freezing point and molecular boiling point and heat of adsorption and to change the deuterium pKa of the strength of hydrogen bonding. Isotope is a very common effect that such substitution of deuterium is the binding constant of the protein receptor molecule actually is well known it.
The number of different receptors many genome of 1,000 as long as the mammal is about 3% of the genes in the genome is large, there is odor. However, to express the odor receptor gene potential of all these, it is function. According to the analysis of data obtained from the Human Genome Project, it must functional gene of about 400 encoding candidate odorant receptors, the remaining 600 are false humans.
A number of reasons of odor receptors Another is to provide a system for distinguishing between different odor as possible. Even so, you will not be able to detect the smell of their respective receptors, the odor. That has never been encountered before diversity is set to activate the number of odor immune system structures.Analogous broadly similar each odor receptors instead present in the olfactory receptor is characterized I want to allow the molecule. However, in contrast to the immune system instead generates diversity by recombination, so as to concentrate the coding gene or most of the genome, each of olfactory receptor is translated by a particular gene . In addition, most of the bad smell activates the smell of more than one receptor type. The number of permutations and combinations of olfactory receptors because it is almost limitless, olfactory receptors, can be detected during an infinite number of substantially odor molecules, to distinguish.