Transduction Process

There is an important conclusion how they and the receptor is to be performed for the transduction process. The first consideration is the specificity. The body should be able to turn on and off certain processes, such as they require. There is no need to either salivate a last meal, to digest if you are scared, you are running away from an attacker, but it will if you do not mobilize the energy mental and physical of all you can do does not. However, the cell, you have only a few that can turn the process. Result or a specific enzyme, important cell, ion concentration of intracellular working in the cell as a “second messenger” activation “Messenger” first receptor (hormones and neurotransmitters) (in particular process may become active and a change in calcium ions).

There are two types of histamine receptors, sex-specific body is achieved, H2. H2-receptor H1 and by having a. Example many types of organizations and their distribution and receptors ambassador, “the first is the antihistamine blocks H1 receptors, they have a limited few sites, the location including the stomach, explains why does not prevent the formation of gastric acid (used for the treatment of allergy) However, the other cells. involved, by the type of some receptors, are programmed by the gene is properly being find them, body against various conditions for the production of acid it is possible to react very specifically Te.


Receptor, convert method? Obviously, if it is a receptor for receiving a portion of the protein molecules so that an external signal, chemicals, and extracellular. This is a recognition site that binds to a molecule mediators particular. What happens recognition site that is bound is blocked antagonists. Because they bind to receptors of the long period closely, typical antagonist, has a high affinity. For something to convert the effect when exogenous agonists or endogenous binding to the receptor, what should happen next. This means that by changing the activity of the next step, a “conformational change”, in this situation, three-dimensional structure of a receptor protein is present. While having a high specificity for binding sites of an agonist, its affinity is lower to be released to allow further activation of the agonist molecule other. For example, when you walk around, the torso and arms, subject to relaxation and rapid contraction many groups of muscle fibers in the leg: the chemical messenger receptor, to act for a long period in which it will be impossible If it is that. However, when you want to relax the muscles of the abdomen for surgery, medicine long-acting (antagonist) is used anesthesiologist.


In other words, the chain of amino acids to cross back and forth across the membrane, intracellular end – In recognition sites, each receptor is coupled to the remainder of the protein molecules from the transmembrane domain. The number of membrane switch is a variable 12, the two-up only.The signaling through a membrane receptor, four digits usually is required.It is possible to extracellular signal molecules produced by the cells, is moved to a cell or a plurality of adjacent cells may be distant: extracellular signaling molecules.May have a cell surface protein that cells in the body is coupled to the signal receptor molecules, transmits the presence of intracellular: Receptor protein. Intracellular signaling proteins: it sends a signal of the corresponding portion of the cell. Binding of signaling molecules of the receptor protein, activates the intracellular signaling protein that initiates the (series of intracellular signaling molecules that act in order) the signaling cascade.

Transmission is the process by which DNA is transferred to another by the virus from one bacteria. Also relates to a process to be introduced into another cell via a viral vector foreign DNA. Transduction, requires physical contact between the (occurring in connection) the preparation of cellular DNA and cell donor DNA, not resistant to (sensitive ATPase conversion) DN ase. Transduction is a common tool used in molecular biology to introduce a foreign gene into the genome of the host cell stably. When you infect the bacterial cells (virus that infects bacteria) bacteriophage, is in normal mode, playback the translation machinery replicational, transcriptional and complete virus particles containing RNA or viral DNA or bacterial cells, the virion of host number Coat protein is to use.

Among bacteria, it is particularly important transduced as described mechanisms have become inefficient for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to antibiotics. In addition, he hopes to create a medical method of genetic modification of diseases such as Duchenne / Becker muscular dystrophy, such as those based on the methodology of these. Transmission is done through the cycle and lysogenic cycle or lysis. When employing the lysogens cycle (via covalent bonds) phage chromosome is integrated in the bacterial chromosome that they can remain dormant thousands generations. If (such as by UV light) was induced, was excised from the chromosome phage genomes, bacterial lysogen began lytic cycle leading cell lysis and release of the phage particles. Lytic cycle will result in the production of new phage particles which are released by lysis of the host.

Packaging of phage DNA, can be packed in bacteriophage genome with the genome of the bacteriophage, you have the small pieces of bacterial DNA and low accuracy. At the same time, the phage genes some remaining in the bacterial chromosome. Type viral DNA occurring in two modes recombination, three potential recombination events leading to containing bacterial DNA is present in general.

Special transduction is processing a set of bacterial genes can be transferred to another bacterium. Gene was transferred as a function of the site (donor gene) phage genome is a chromosome. As included in the DNA which is located near the prophage when they occur, bacterial gene was cut out, transferred professional, article defective prophage from the chromosome. Depending on the nature of bacteriophage, was then packaged into new virus particles that are supplied to the DNA of the new bacteria may remain in the cytoplasm donor gene, or be placed in a recipient chromosome cleaved DNA . Encapsulating material infected cell phage another part, it is converted to “prophage” prophage DNA that encodes a partially “is heterogenote” called. In E. coli that have been detected by Esther Lederberg example of the transfer professional is a λ phage.