Is a family of receptors which are activated ephrin receptor (EPHS) in response to the binding ephrin. The formation EPHS a subfamily known receptor tyrosine kinase of maximum (of RTK). Its ligand both EPHS is a membrane-bound proteins that require direct cell-cell interaction of Eph receptor activation of ephrin. Axonal guidance formation of tissue boundaries, cell migration, and includes segmentation, Eph / ephrin signaling is involved in the regulation of various processes important for embryonic development. Further, the long term potentiation, angiogenesis, and Ephemeris / epherin signaling plays an important role in the maintenance of several processes in adults including cancer and differentiation of stem cells has recently been found.
EPHS will be divided (encoded by a gene locus were identified EPHB and EPHA, respectively) to EphBs two subclasses, and EphA class based on the through-bound ephrin or glycol linked ephrin ligand, or binding affinity and its sequence similarity B ligand can be. That humans expressing EphBs of 5 EphA such as 9 (see above) are known Eph receptors – 16 identified in animals. Overall, it binds the ephrin all of subclasses in priority, but we, EPHS a subclass that did not cross-linked with ephrin in opposition to the subset of most. It was proposed that could be due to different binding mechanisms recently intrasubclass specific Eph / ephrin binding is used by EphBs EphA and such a part. Exceptions intrasubclass binding specificity observed in EPHS that can be activated to bind EphA4 Noto ephrin-A5 which activates ephrin-B3 are bonded recently and EPHB2 is as shown, there are, however . EPHA / ephrinA reaction, good EPHB / ephrin-B interactions may be due to the fact usually that are interconnected to require small structural changes in ephrin Volume partially mechanisms “key and keyhole”, Unlike those used for mechanism “Fit induced” requires more energy to change the conformation of EphBs will be coupled to the observation ephrin-BS with higher affinity, EphA kind EphBs.
Extracellular domain of Eph receptors is formed spherical ephrin ligand binding domain that is highly conserved, of two fibronectin type III domain cysteine-rich region. Cytoplasmic domain of Eph receptors, is composed of a juxtamembrane region of the PDZ binding motif tyrosine residues two conserved tyrosine kinase domain, sterile α and motif (SAM). Is converted to its active form, the intracellular tyrosine kinase after binding of ephrin ligands, inhibiting downstream activation or to the extracellular domain of becoming serine residues and phosphorylation juxtamembrane domain Eph receptor tyrosine spherical, of Ephesus You can You can be the signaling cascade.
The segmentation by the body is divided into functional units for the first basic process of embryogenesis, has been found in all vertebrates and vertebrate most. Essential for future functional differentiation and – in the region of the divided embryo, cells begin to show boundaries morphological and biochemical behavior of the cells is being dramatically different. The segmentation of the hindbrain, is a specific process. However proximal mesoderm, it is adaptive adjustment process development according to Riyabodei growth and dynamic. Eph receptors are ephrin different and, boundaries.Similar study suitable for this segment shows a segmented such processing is expressed in these areas, Eph signaling is performed in zebrafish by functional analysis including a representation of the stripes and their ligands Ephesians receptor is essential for the proper segmentation – break of expression as a result of the loss or absence border has been found to be important in the development and maintenance.
Eph receptor is present in a high degree to the early development of other circulation system and angiogenesis (angiogenesis). This development is impaired without it. In addition, by stimulating the production of capillary sprouts to support the multiple phases of the development of complex differentiation of the support structure cells.The blood vessels Uchima leaves perivascular, it requires adjustment of mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells , network necessary for the circulatory system to function fully able to distinguish between vein and artery endothelial cells is considered. Ideal, therefore, the nature and representation of the dynamic model of the EPHS, make them for role in angiogenesis. In the same way, the expression pattern of mouse embryos, and EphA1, intersomitic limb bud ship in pre-endocardial cells and mesoderm extends to the back aorta after the main head vein later and are consistent with a role in angiogenesis I show the ship. The class is another of Eph receptors, and of EphB2/ephrin-B4 of endocardium.Complementary of expression found in developing and EphB4 artery endothelial cells in vein endothelial cells aorta, brachial artery arch, and umbilical vein It is found in the lining.
The expression of ephrin-B2 and EPHB2 was found to suggesting a role in the development of the wall through the endothelial mesenchymal interactions, to support the mesenchymal cells. Consists of blood vessels, the formation of the capillary network key remodeling and restructuring of fine mesh three is followed by the formation of blood vessels during embryonic development is – the lack of restructuring in the test to the ephrin-B2-deficient mice, not of blood vessels in the embryo as a result primary network shown continuity. Ephrins and EPHS, by the production of capillary sprouts, and stimulates the differentiation of mesenchyme in perivascular and limiting vein endothelial mixing arterial and thereby, by contributing to the development of blood vessels, led to the development of events Functional analysis of mutant mouse cells other was to support ongoing studies.